New Challenger for Sustainable Ethanol Production in Industrial Biorefineries


Nations urgently need to tackle climate change in harmony with a circular economy to accomplish Sustainable Development Goals. Using sustainable biomass for sustainable industrial ethanol production seems attractive. Recently, the outstanding features of the arid plants nopales, aka prickly pear cactus, became headlines. Nopales outcompete algae and other biomasses in many aspects. Nopales are resilient, and climate change sparked their advancing invasion across European countries and other places.

Poster prickly pear cactus ethanol LCA
Poster presented at 7th Green and Sustainable Chemistry Conference, Dresden, Germany.

A sustainable biorefinery for ethanol production from nopales could holistically support promising outlooks on energy transition, water positive activities and food security near cities. However, the environmental impact and energy efficiency of this novel biorefinery for renewable energy under realistic scenarios is unknown. Traditional chemical pretreatments are polluters that can improve through environmental assessment and bio/chemical process design.  

We conducted experiments and assessments of scenarios for cleaner ethanol production from nopales in a biorefinery.  Four scenarios considered two fertilisers, two pretreatments and two operational modes. We conducted life cycle assessment, energy balances and energy efficiency calculations. The most polluting scenario uses fossil fertilisers, acid hydrolysis and neutralization of nopal nutrients, and it resulted in approximately four times the global warming potential of the best scenario.  Organic fertilisers and the use and reuse of ionic liquids with acetone for washing was the most ecofriendly scenario.

We propose a cleaner design showing the lowest impacts in all categories, including Global Warming, Acidification and Eutrophication Potentials and more. Besides, the design used the lowest amount of energy per unit of energy as ethanol fuel. It also has the best energy efficiency since it converted three-fold the amount of spent energy, in the worst scenario, into net energy as ethanol fuel.

Sustainable biorefineries and sustainable biomasses are opportunities in the circular economy while pursuing climate risk mitigation, carbon neutrality and green energy for sustainable development.

New process for commercial chemicals from biomass


Taking an environmentally friendly idea from the lab and making it available to the public is not a straightforward matter.  But hopes open, as shown by this novel process for adding value to algae residue by producing more microbial oil in additional steps.

The planet is warming up… How can engineering help?


Guest Speaker: Dr Ernesto Hernandez (UNMC)

With special response about engineering and environmental challenges by

Dr Amirhossein Malakahmad (UT Petronas)

Inspired in the exponential achievements in modern history, Ernesto Hernandez will give us a different perspective on global warming. He embarks into the journey of showing SciTech solutions, not aiming to save the Earth from its inevitable death but to help it last longer as a liveable global home for us all. Continue reading

Saving the Earth from ending like Venus: on fire and raining sulphuric acid


We show a new way to save our planet from global warming.  To tackle this problem, We focus on a natural approach to capture the smoky carbon dioxide released by industrial plants and make chalk out of it, using a process that could be accelerated up to one million times and adds value to CO2 in a socially responsible way. You can find the whole article in page 9 of Asia Research News.

Circular Economy

Circular Economy.

Biotechnological challenges in agriculture: addressing drawbacks, failures, and limitations.

In recent years, biotechnology has played a significant role in revolutionising agriculture, offering promises of increased crop yields, improved pest resistance, and enhanced nutritional value. However, alongside its promises, biotechnological interventions in agriculture also face a myriad of drawbacks, failures, limitations, and challenges that need to be addressed to ensure sustainable and equitable agricultural practices. Let’s delve into some of the key issues:

  1. Genetic Monoculture and Biodiversity Loss: One of the primary concerns associated with biotechnological agriculture is the promotion of genetic monoculture. The widespread adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops, engineered for specific traits such as herbicide resistance or pest resistance, has led to a reduction in crop diversity. This monoculture not only increases the vulnerability of crops to diseases and pests but also threatens biodiversity by displacing native plant species and disrupting ecosystems.

  2. Pesticide Resistance and Environmental Risks: Biotechnological solutions, such as the development of insect-resistant crops through genetic engineering, have led to the emergence of pesticide-resistant pests. Over-reliance on these crops and pesticides has created selective pressures, accelerating the evolution of resistant pest populations. This phenomenon not only undermines the effectiveness of biotechnological interventions but also poses environmental risks due to increased pesticide use and potential harm to non-target organisms.

  3. Social and Economic Disparities: The adoption of biotechnological agriculture has exacerbated social and economic disparities, particularly in developing countries. Large agrochemical corporations dominate the biotechnology sector, controlling patented seeds and technologies. This concentration of power marginalizes smallholder farmers, restricts access to affordable seeds, and perpetuates dependency on external inputs, leading to a cycle of debt and poverty for many farmers.

  4. Regulatory Challenges and Public Perception: Biotechnological innovations in agriculture often face regulatory hurdles and public scepticism. Concerns regarding food safety, environmental impacts, and ethical considerations surrounding genetic engineering have led to stringent regulations and public resistance in some regions. Navigating the complex regulatory landscape and addressing public perception issues pose significant challenges for the adoption and commercialisation of biotechnological solutions.

  5. Unintended Consequences and Long-Term Impacts: Despite extensive testing and risk assessments, the long-term impacts of biotechnological interventions on human health and the environment remain uncertain. Unforeseen consequences, such as gene flow to wild relatives, unintended environmental impacts, and potential health risks associated with genetically modified organisms (GMOs), underscore the need for thorough monitoring, research, and precautionary measures.

Addressing the Challenges:

Addressing the drawbacks, failures, and limitations of biotechnological agriculture requires a holistic approach that integrates scientific innovation with socio-economic considerations and environmental stewardship. Some potential strategies include:

  1. Promoting Agroecological Approaches: Encouraging agroecological practices that prioritize biodiversity conservation, soil health, and resilience can mitigate the adverse impacts of biotechnological monocultures. Agroecology emphasizes ecological principles and farmer-centred approaches, fostering sustainable and diversified farming systems.

  2. Supporting Farmer-Centred Innovation: Empowering smallholder farmers with access to locally adapted seeds, farmer-led research, and participatory breeding programs can enhance agricultural resilience and promote inclusive innovation. Supporting farmer cooperatives and seed-saving initiatives can strengthen local food sovereignty and reduce dependency on external inputs.

  3. Enhancing Regulatory Oversight and Transparency: Strengthening regulatory frameworks to ensure rigorous risk assessment, transparent decision-making, and public participation is essential for responsible biotechnological innovation. Regulatory agencies should prioritize public health, environmental protection, and socio-economic equity in their evaluation of biotechnological products and practices.

  4. Investing in Research and Education: Investing in interdisciplinary research, technology transfer, and farmer education can facilitate the development and adoption of context-specific biotechnological solutions tailored to local agroecological conditions and socio-economic contexts. Promoting knowledge-sharing platforms, extension services, and farmer-to-farmer networks can foster innovation diffusion and capacity-building.

  5. Fostering Dialogue and Collaboration: Promoting inclusive dialogue and collaboration among stakeholders, including farmers, scientists, policymakers, civil society organizations, and consumers, is crucial for addressing the complex challenges facing biotechnological agriculture. Engaging in transparent and participatory decision-making processes can build trust, foster consensus, and promote socially and environmentally responsible innovation.

In conclusion, while biotechnological innovations hold promise for addressing global food security challenges, they also pose significant risks and challenges that must be carefully addressed. By embracing a diversified and inclusive approach to agricultural innovation, grounded in ecological principles, social equity, and ethical considerations, we can navigate the complexities of biotechnological agriculture and move towards a more resilient, sustainable, and equitable food system for future generations.

Challenges and Limitations of Vertical Farming

In recent years, vertical farming has emerged as a promising solution to address the growing challenges of food security, resource scarcity, and urbanisation. The concept involves growing crops in vertically stacked layers or on vertically inclined surfaces. Vertical farming offers numerous potential benefits, including increased crop yields, reduced water usage, and year-round production. However, vertical farming faces drawbacks, failures, limitations, and challenges that must be addressed for it to reach its full potential.

One of the primary challenges facing vertical farming is its high initial capital investment and operational costs. Setting up a vertical farm requires substantial investment in infrastructure, including specialised lighting, irrigation systems, and climate control technology. In addition, the energy requirements for maintaining optimal growing conditions can be significant, leading to high electricity bills. These costs can render vertical farming economically unfeasible, particularly for small-scale operations or in regions with low-energy availability or high electricity prices.

Another significant limitation of vertical farming is its dependence on artificial lighting. Although advancements in LED technology have made indoor farming more energy efficient, reliance on artificial lighting still represents a significant operational cost. Moreover, providing uniform light distribution throughout the vertical farm can be challenging, leading to variations in crop growth and quality. In addition, the use of artificial lighting contributes to the carbon footprint of vertical farming, undermining its potential as a sustainable agricultural practice.

Vertical farming also faces inherent limitations in terms of crop selection and yield potential. While certain crops, such as leafy greens and herbs, are well-suited to vertical farming because of their compact size and rapid growth rates, other staple crops, such as grains or root vegetables, may be less suitable. The limited vertical space and specialised growing conditions of vertical farms constrain the types of crops that can be grown economically, restricting their ability to significantly contribute to overall food production.

Furthermore, vertical farming is not immune to pest and disease outbreaks, despite its controlled indoor environment. The dense planting configurations and uniform environmental conditions of vertical farms can create ideal conditions for the proliferation of pests and pathogens, leading to crop losses and reduced yields. Managing pest and disease pressures in vertical farming requires careful monitoring, integrated pest management strategies, and often the use of pesticides or other chemical interventions, which may compromise the sustainability and quality of the produce.

In addition to these technical challenges, vertical farming faces broader systemic barriers that hinder its widespread adoption and scalability. Land availability, zoning regulations, and urban planning constraints can limit the expansion of vertical farming operations, particularly in densely populated urban areas where space is at a premium. Moreover, the reliance of vertical farming on advanced technology and specialised expertise may exacerbate inequalities within the agricultural sector, excluding smallholder farmers and marginalised communities from participating in or benefiting from vertical farming initiatives.

Despite these challenges and limitations, there is still considerable optimism surrounding the potential of vertical farming to revolutionise agriculture and food production. Continued technological innovation, research, and investment are essential to address the technical, economic, and systemic barriers facing vertical farming. By overcoming these challenges, vertical farming can play a significant role in building more resilient, sustainable, and equitable food systems for the future.

Navigating the Drawbacks and Challenges of Bioenergy from Microalgae

One of the primary drawbacks of bioenergy from microalgae is the scalability and cost-effectiveness of production. While microalgae can be cultivated in various environments, including freshwater, seawater, and wastewater, scaling up production to meet commercial demands remains a significant challenge. The high costs associated with cultivating, harvesting, and processing microalgae biomass hinder the economic viability of large-scale bioenergy production.

In recent years, bioenergy derived from microalgae has emerged as a promising alternative to traditional fossil fuels, offering potential solutions to both energy security and environmental sustainability challenges. Microalgae possess several advantages, including high photosynthetic efficiency, rapid growth rates, and the ability to thrive in diverse environments. However, as with any emerging technology, there are significant drawbacks, failures, limitations, and challenges that must be navigated to realize the full potential of microalgae-based bioenergy.

Furthermore, despite advancements in cultivation techniques and genetic engineering, microalgae strains with high lipid content suitable for biofuel production remain difficult to find. Many microalgae species naturally produce low lipid yields, requiring extensive research and development efforts to enhance lipid accumulation through genetic manipulation or environmental stressors. Additionally, the competition between lipid accumulation and biomass productivity presents a trade-off that must be carefully balanced to maximize biofuel yields.

Another critical limitation of microalgae-based bioenergy is the energy-intensive processes involved in cultivation, harvesting, and conversion. The energy inputs required for maintaining optimal growth conditions, such as temperature, light intensity, and nutrient availability, often outweigh the energy outputs from biofuel production. This energy imbalance undermines the sustainability credentials of microalgae-based bioenergy and underscores the need for further innovation in process optimization and resource utilization.

Moreover, the environmental impacts of large-scale microalgae cultivation raise concerns regarding land and water use, nutrient pollution, and biodiversity loss. Intensive cultivation of microalgae in open ponds or bioreactors can lead to eutrophication of water bodies due to nutrient runoff and algal blooms, posing risks to aquatic ecosystems and human health. Additionally, land-use conflicts may arise from the conversion of natural habitats or agricultural land for microalgae cultivation, exacerbating deforestation and habitat destruction, just to cite a few.

Despite these challenges, researchers and industry stakeholders remain optimistic about the potential of microalgae-based bioenergy to contribute to a sustainable energy future. Ongoing research efforts focus on improving strain selection, cultivation methods, and downstream processing technologies to enhance the efficiency and scalability of biofuel production from microalgae. Advanced biorefinery concepts1, such as integrated systems for co-production of biofuels, bioproducts, and wastewater treatment, offer promising avenues for maximizing resource utilization and economic returns.

In conclusion, while bioenergy from microalgae holds great promise as a renewable and environmentally friendly energy source, it faces significant hurdles in terms of scalability, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability. Addressing these drawbacks and challenges will require interdisciplinary collaboration, innovative technologies, and supportive policy frameworks to unlock the full potential of microalgae-based bioenergy. By overcoming these obstacles, microalgae bioenergy could play a vital role in transitioning towards a more sustainable and resilient energy system.

  1. A novel process for enhancing oil production in algae biorefineries through bioconversion of solid by-products, ↩︎

Job Research Internship BioRenewables


Role Global challenges require global actions to achieve Sustainable Goals while supporting a circular economy. Biomass is a renewable versatile resource that can be used to produce heat, power, transport fuels and products, however, it should be sustainable. In an … Continue reading